90 Responses for the Internet
What a possible or unlikely one may ask about its structure, use, terminology and history. When it was created, who runs it, who pays it, how many users are, which countries are connected, how much the connection costs.
1. What is the Internet? The Internet is just a place, which provides the possibility to interconnect all the networks of the planet! Each university has a local, private network, as well as any company, organization, etc. The Internet provides the procedures and the ability to interconnect these networks, allowing their users to access beyond that provided by their local network their organization. Therefore, the Internet does not add content to existing networks, but a way to make them accessible from other parts of the globe.
2. When was it created? The Internet progenitor, ARPANET, was created in the late 1960s by the US Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to link computer networks. In the late 1970s it was adopted by the US Pentagon and the first computers were connected in 1980, while in 1983 the network was standardized and formalized.
3. Why was it created? The primary goal of ARPA was to connect computer networks to make it possible to use computers in wider areas. The purpose of the US military was to build a network that would not collapse in the event of the destruction of some of its nodes, something that is achieved by today’s use of the Internet. Today, the network covers any issue, maintaining the stability features set in the beginning.
4. Who runs it? Nobody (seemingly)! The Internet simply interconnects the networks, so in practice the operator of each individual network is in charge of using the Internet. There is a central committee, the Network Information Center (NIC), which distributes the addresses, but its role is not administrative. The committee simply facilitates the handling of practical issues.
5. Who offers it? All networks that are interconnected to it, each for its users!
6. Who pays? A little bit too much of us! In order to connect, a network pays the line joining it to a network node. Users of this network and, by extension, the Internet pay for the network (or subsidize, for example in the case of universities), thus covering the costs of the entire network interface.
7. Finally, are the US and military services? That’s where they all started. But the Internet has been so dimensioned that it can (possibly) not be classified as being military or managed by the US (although most of the computers are located there).
8. Why is it written in “I”? Because it is the broadest planetary Internet that has ever been on Earth, we write it in capital to separate it from other, smaller-scale networks.
9. Has other names? In English, other than ‘Internet’, it is understood to be ‘Net’. In Greek we refer to it as “Network” or “Internet”.
10. How many computers are connected? Recent studies raise this figure to about 20 million (July 1997).
11. How many users are there? Because there is an inconsistency in research, it is difficult to answer the question. An approximate figure is close to 100 million users.
12. In Greece? In January 1997, there were approximately 10,000 computers, while users had to spend over 40,000 (without having a specific study of it).
13. How many countries are linked? Connections from 120 countries have been reported. These include Albania and Skopje.
14. At what rates do the statistics change? Ragdas! Computers are rising at rates that are sometimes close to 90% per year, while users are rising at similar rates. In Greece the figures are even higher, since the explosion took place much later than in other countries. Incremental growth naturally also occurs in individual activities within the network.
15. What is TCP / IP? It means Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol and this is the protocol by which computers are connected to the Internet.
16. What does IP address mean? Every computer on the Internet has a separate number consisting of four natural numbers (0-255 each) … For example 220.127.116.11 is an IP address, which corresponds to socrates. ceid. upatras.gr
17. What is and what does computer names mean? Because people more easily memorize names than numbers, with a system called DNS (Domain Name System) IP addresses are assigned with words. So, calling socrates. ceid. upatras. DNS offers the IP address, that is, 18.104.22.168, with which the connection is made. These names usually also contain information about the origin of the computer (gr).
18. Are there differences regarding the rights of specific computers and users? TCP / IP treats all Internet computers equally. Consequently, all computers are equal to the Internet, regardless of their size, operating system, etc. The administrators of individual Internet networks can of course determine the rights of Internet computers by allowing or even forbidding access to specific computers, this but it has nothing to do with the Internet, but with the individual networks.
19. What are the different protocols used in the Network and what is their function? Because the Internet is interconnecting a multitude of different computers, ways have to be found to communicate with each other in a defined way. The various protocols provide specific rules for the interconnection of computers on the Internet, as well as for the use of its various services.
20. What does hardware need to connect to? A typical Internet connection requires a computer that can handle a modem. The modem (also necessary for connection) is this device that allows one to handle OTE’s telephone network to transfer computer data. With the computer, the modem as well as the phone line will be able to connect to a computer company that provides Internet access.
21. What does software need? In the simplest of cases, a simple communication program is enough to access the Internet. If of course there are increased requirements, other programs, especially for the computer, should be provided by the interested party in order to use specific services. In the Internet itself there are easy-to-use programs, which are provided for free or are part of operating systems.
22. Is that all you need? In terms of hardware and software, yes. What’s left is a deal with a company that can access the Internet by having an account on its computers. These companies are called Internet Services Providers (or Internet Providers) and there are several such, with nodes in many cities as well.
23. There is no Internet Provider in town! How is access achieved? In this case, known companies have to be asked if they intend to install a hub in the city and when. If the answer is negative, then you will need to adapt the person to either long distance calls or Hellas Pac use by OTE, which allows computers to connect at a lower cost than a direct call.
24. Is there a UNIX on the computer to connect? Definitely not! UNIX is the operating system used by most Internet computers, belonging to different companies and organizations. Probably it is also used by the Internet Provider chosen, but this is his own subject. On the user’s computer, the operating system is purely its own choice.
25. What types of links are there? For single users the connection is through a shell account: SLIP and PPP. In shell accounts, pseudo-SLIP and pseudo-PPP connections are also used to provide specific solutions. For greater demands on speed and use, the user should resort to the leased line.
26. What is a shell account connection and what does it offer? The user connects to his Internet Provider with a simple communications program. To use the Internet Provider services, the client handles the Internet Provider’s programs. This means that in practice it directly uses its provider’s computer (it becomes its terminal), and all processes are made in the Provider’s operating system. It has complete Internet access and use capabilities, although limiting to host programs is not always practical. It is, however, the most economical access solution.
27. What is a SLIP connection and what does it offer? With this connection the user’s computer obtains from the Provider its own IP address and becomes an Internet computer. Users can be connected to it from the rest of the Internet, treating it as a real Internet computer. The programs for the different services are no longer running on the host, but on the user’s own computer, which means that the user himself must obtain the necessary programs for the use of each service, suitable for the operating system and the computer (the programs are mostly on the Internet itself).
28. What is PPP connection and what does it offer? This connection for the simple user is identical to the SLIP connection. As a newer protocol, it has some advantages over the SLIP connection and should generally be preferred, but in no case have significant differences.
29. What difference does static have from the dynamic PPP connection? With the static connection, whenever an Internet connection is reached, the computer has a specific address and a name. In the case of dynamic connection, different IPs are assigned to each connection. With dynamic links, IP is economical, but it is difficult to locate the IP of a computer user.
30. What is pseudo-SLIP and what is pseudo-PPP binding? By using special programs on a shell account, the computer may be fooled by the SLIP / PPP connection, but it does not have a real IP address. In this way, without using many IP addresses, many users can enjoy the advantages of SLIP / PPP connections at a lower cost.
31. In which cases are leased lines used? Companies that want permanent Internet connections and require increased data transfer needs.
32. How much does the connection cost? Depending on the company and how to connect, however, with 50,000 – 60,000 drachmas per year, the required connection can be achieved.
33. Does connection and use require a lot of knowledge on computers? A few years ago, knowledge of computers would be valuable. Today, with the entry of people who have nothing to do with computers, things have become very simple, making Internet use as easy as learning a simple Windows program.
34. Is the knowledge of terminology necessary before the first connection? Knowledge is gained by constant contact with cyberspace and as things have been so simplified, the above action becomes redundant.
35. What are the services provided by the Internet? Many different! Email, exchange of views on numerous topics, files and programs, direct communication with other users, the World Wide Web with texts, sound and image, etc.
36. Only these exist? A lot! They are innumerable!
37. Is the creation of a new service immediately notified? News on the Internet is spreading lightning fast. If this is the case, there are on the Internet the appropriate procedures for quick information and learning.
38. What is e-mail? This is the ability to exchange messages with any Internet user, wherever he is, by using his e-mail address.
39. How is a postal address of a user forming and what? In each system the user has a unique name. Combining this with the fact that each system also has a unique Internet name (eg tselikis @ ceid. Upatras.gr), the email address of the Internet appears. Any message intended for this address will reach and only to that user.
40. How can I use e-mail? With special programs, the so-called mailers, available for all systems.
41. What can I receive with e-mail? From simple messages to entire files and programs.
42. Do e-mail users have the same program to communicate? No! Protocols ensure that everything is done in a compatible way.
43. Is it possible to communicate with the “planetary master”? Of course, since the president of the United States has an Internet address (president @ whitehouse. Gov).
44. In cases of e-mail harassment, which protection is provided? Home traffic is a protest to the user’s system administrator that bothers you. Administrator depending on the action can disable user access! That’s why we need attention to actions that can offend and annoy recipients of the messages.
45. What is the mailing list? Using listservers running on specific Internet computers, users from across the Internet are writing subscribers to groups with common interests. Then, via e-mail, each member can express his / her point of view on a subject, which he will also send to the listserver, who will then distribute it to all members. Thus, we have discussions through e-mail, involving many users.
46.What is the telnet service? It allows us to connect to other computers if we have an account with them.
47. How does the telnet service work? One use of this service is for those who have an account across multiple computers around the world. Instead of using the phone with international calls, in order to connect to them, they can use the Internet lines. It is also used in services that require user interaction (eg in games).
48. What is FTP? It transfers files from one Internet computer to someone else.
49. What is Anonymous FTP? Many computers have a lot of free files for Internet users. This way you can get useful files and shareware programs from the Internet.
50. What is Usenet? They are Internet conferencing. There are thousands of groups on any topic where every user can make his point of view, a question or announcement that everyone Internet users can read and then give their opinion. Discussions are being held with this conference, queries are solved and announcements are communicated throughout the Internet.
51. What topics are discussed in Usenet? Everything! There are more than 20,000 teams covering computer, science, entertainment, politics, sensuality and more. Every user will find something in Usenet that is of interest to them.
52. How to access Usenet messages? There are several Usenet servers across the network. The most convenient and fastest solution is that of the Usenet server of the Internet Provider itself, since it is logically the nearest Usenet server.
53. Are Usenet’s discussions free of charge? Usenet means freedom! Every user can participate in Usenet’s discussions without hesitation, as long as they respect the basic rules of good behavior and dialogue.
54. What is the World Wide Web? This is a service that provides a lot of information with pages on different servers. These pages contain text in hypertext format as well as multimedia elements (audio, image, video, etc.). The hypertext format allows the user to go from one Web page to another by simply selecting a link linking them. Also the mutlimedia features of the service make it ideal for attractive presentation of information as well as powerful marketing tool.
55. Because of graphics and sound, the way of accessing through a graphical environment such as Windows is unique? Not exclusively. If the web pages are viewed in text environment, they lose significantly from their attractiveness. Therefore, the graphical environment is what is recommended on the Web.
56. There are several programs to access the World Wide Web. Which is best and how is it best? Indeed, there are several Web access programs with different features and features, such as Netscape, Internet Explorer, Mosaic, and so on. The programs selected must be able to support the new Web language (HTML) attributes in order to observe pages with full features and to support the emerging new technologies. Besides, the Web is a relatively new service, which has just developed in recent years, so it has a lot of room ahead of it and its programs should monitor this development. Finally, an important element in choosing a program for Web access is the capabilities it offers to other services (eg e-mail, Usenet, etc.).
57. Can the user have their own web page? The overwhelming majority of Internet Providers enable users to place their own page on the Internet Provider’s Web server. Depending on the size of the page and the provider, costs vary, which may be free, for relatively small pages.
58. What are Web search engines? The Web contains many pages and the great difficulty is how to find pages containing items of interest. Search engines record the contents of the Web pages, so it is now possible to search for a topic on such a machine and to return the pages containing data on that subject.
59. What is JAVA and VRML? What does it take to be seen? As mentioned above, the World Wide Web is a service that is constantly evolving. JAVA and VRML are just two new technologies that add new features to Web pages. With JAVA, various applications can be executed on the Web server, with the ability to build integrated web applications. JAVA and VRML are needed to support Web-based programs such as Netscape 4.0.
60. What is Gopher? It is somehow the forerunner of the World Wide Web. It is a system where information is presented using a hierarchical menu, which leads to specific content. It is possible to connect from Gopher server to Gopher server, using suitable options, as well as on the Web, but multimedia environment is not provided.
61. What is Talk? This is a program that allows instant and real-time communication between two Internet users. Specifically, once the connection between the two users has been achieved, the one that writes one appears on the screen of the other and vice versa.
62. What is IRC (Internet Relay Chat)? While Talk can be used to communicate with two users, IRC has direct and real-time communication between many Internet users. In particular, users connect to various cyber IRC servers and then, after choosing the channel they want, they record their views by transferring them to the screens of the other users who are on the same channel with them.
63. What is Finger? It is a relatively simple service, which gives information about whether or not a user is connected to the network, and when his last connection was made. It is used to determine whether a user is on the network to communicate with Talk or just for information.
64. What is WAIS? These are the initials of Wide Area Information Server words and are an attempt to organize the chaos of available Internet information to facilitate their search and retrieval. Practically, there are large databases on various topics that allow easy search of information.
What is WHOIS? These are bases that contain information about users and organizations participating in the Internet. The basic idea is the ability to find data for an Internet user whose name is known. In practice, however, there are not always positive results, since all Internet users are not always aware of their presence on the network.
66. Games has the Internet? How could he not? The Internet can get involved in a variety of games, and most of the time it faces other network users who are not even aware of it! Chess, backgammon, adventures and many other games are offered for a pleasant time.
67. Is it useful for education? By providing countless information (and even with immediate updates on the latest developments), the Internet is an ideal aid for the student and the student. No book or manual can have immediate information and information that the Internet can provide.
68. In the professional sector can the Internet be useful? The Internet provides information that may be useful to any professional. The lawyer will find references to various laws or trials, and can analyze a case at specific points in the network. The doctor will be briefed immediately on the latest developments in his field of science, the same as the engineer, the mathematician, and all professionals are immediately informed about international job opportunities.
69. In the case of Internet connection to overseas computers or sending emails abroad, does the charge be long-distance? In OTE, the user pays the cost of the dial-up connection from where he calls to the location of the provider’s phone. From then on, it does not charge any further charges. Consequently, if you call the Internet Provider via a local call, the cost of the connection is limited to the call as if you are calling and talking to any OTE subscriber at that distance, regardless of where we will then connect over the Internet.
70. What are MUDs? This is the acronym of Multi-User Dungeons and refers to programs that allow the interaction of multiple users with each other within a virtual environment. In practice they are mainly used for games and are one of the most popular forms of entertainment on the Internet. There are over 500 MUDs on the Internet, where someone can connect using Telnet and play. Most are RPGs where the user can create their own character, moving on the network, picking up objects, dealing with enemies and traps, etc. Depending on the MUD server to which the user will be logged in, it can be found in a space station, King Arthur’s court, or anywhere else that allows his imagination.
71. What does the symbol mean? This is a “smiley” or “emoticon”, as it is otherwise called. As communication on the Internet is usually carried out using the text, a way has to be found to represent the feelings that may accompany a message and often influence its meaning. So there is a great list of such symbols that do exactly that job. For example :-D. means “laugh loud”, and so on. These are learned over time on line.
72. Some odd words in Internet messages that do not seem to have any meaning, what do they mean? Indeed Internet users have a fad with abbreviations and acronyms. Probably the odd word that the user encounters will be either a technical term or something from the Internet Jargon. B.C.,
CU: is the voice performance of the expression “See You”, which means “we say” and is usually used at the end of a message or a conversation.
IMO: from “In My Opinion” and means “in my opinion”.
IMHO: from “In My Humble Opinion” and means “in my humble opinion”.
IOW: from “In Other Words” and means “in other words”.
ROTFL: from “Rolling On The Floor Laughing” and means “I burst into laughter”.
TIA: Thanks to “Thanks In Advanced” and means “thanks in advance” is used to close messages in which the user asks or asks for something.
RTFM: From “Read The Fu … Manual”, it is used as a not particularly courteous prompting someone to stop asking stupid questions and take a look at which “User Manual”.
There are many such acronyms used on the Internet, which are learned with time and experience.
73. Is it possible for a user to watch videos and listen to audio over the Internet? Is true. The service called the World Wide Web allows, when the user works in a graphical environment, to transfer animation and / or sound if it has a similar card.
However, it is not to be expected to show a cinematic overproduction or to hear the No. 9. Audio and video files are usually very large and, at present, data transfer speeds on the Internet and the speeds that can be achieved with the modem are not so large as to allow an average user to see moving picture or hear sound in real time without any excessive delay. It can be done in practice, it mainly concerns animation (animation) or small videos and short audio messages. However, network connection speeds are growing constantly (there are already new fast connections such as ISDN), and new programs are being developed to allow for compression of data. Developments in this area are rapid.
74. Is the telephone conversation via the Internet possible? And that’s true, as there are programs like Iphone that do exactly this job, and there are programs for teleconferencing, simultaneous, that is, the transmission of image and sound to see the user with whom they are talking. However, what has been said in the previous question remains.
75. Why in e-mail when sending messages from Greek to Greek the writing is in Latin characters? These are so-called “Greeklish” and this is a painful story! The protocol that handles the e-mail between Unix systems is designed to accept 7-bit ASCII texts, which include the letters of the Latin alphabet, the numbers and some symbols on the keyboard such as the dot, the comma, the exclamation, etc. To portray Greek in computers, we use 8-bit ASCII, a more extensive set of characters where the Latin letters have been taken in Greek. And to make things even more complicated, two different sets of characters (code pages) are used: 437 in order to observe Greek in DOS or UNIX and ELOT or 928 in Windows.
The problem is that when a message starts from a UNIX system and travels to the Internet to reach another Unix, it must be in 7-bit ASCII, otherwise it will not arrive at all or will arrive with incomprehensible symbols. The first time the Internet was operating in Greece when shell shells were being used in Unix systems, the user was forced to write in Latin characters because he could not just send Greek through the network.
By spreading the use of SLIP and PPP links that allow you to work on the network under a graphical environment using a similar e-mail program that accepts 8-bit characters, it can send a message in Greek. If the recipient has a similar program, they will read it normally (if it has the correct codepage). But if he tries to read it with a Unix mailer or has not properly set up his own program, then he will get a series of incomprehensible symbols. As many users continue to manage their emails under shell accounts with Unix programs, if they want to be sure their mail will reach its destination and be understandable, it is better to write it in Latin characters.
76. How safe is the use of the Internet? Can someone enter another name or read another mail? The overwhelming majority of the systems to which the user logs in to access the Internet is a Unix system, no matter if it works in a graphical environment. Unix systems, precisely because they host multiple users at once, are built with strict security standards. Each user has a unique UserID and a password that must be given before the system can be logged on. It also has its own personal disk space on the system where the files belonging to it and the e-mail messages it receives, to which no one else can enter and read. The password is private and encrypted automatically, so no one can find it, so there is no record anywhere. So if the user watches and follows the rules regarding the selection and use of his password, then he is safe.
77. What should a user watch by choosing a password? There are many basic rules:
a. Do not give the password to anyone and for no reason.
b. The password does not appear on the screen when typing, but if the user is in front of people while they are connected to the network, they need to be careful.
c. Password changes frequently.
d. The password should not be easy to learn or guess, such as an identity number, birthdates, addresses, etc.
e. Safer passwords are those that combine capital and lowercase letters with numbers and special characters on the keyboard (! @ # $% & *).
f. The password should not be recorded anywhere.
78. What does FAQ mean? These are the initials of the words Frequently Asked Questions. It is a collection of the most common questions and answers about a subject, which are circulated as a list on the network, about what is likely or unlikely to be asked by someone new and not just a user.
79. Can anyone do what he wants on the Internet because there is no central authority? No! Since the 1970s, so-called AUPs (Acceptable Use Policies) have been published that describe the acceptable use of computing networks. Beyond that, each Internet Provider has its own operating rules, which the user automatically accepts when registering.
80. And if these rules are violated? It is most likely that the site user, through which the user is linked, makes recommendations, and can reach the point of termination of his contract.
81. How can one find out if an organization is connected to the Internet? There is no simple or reliable way. The easiest is to ask someone who knows about it. Alternatively, the Whois database can be tested on the DDN NIC by making telnet at nothing. ddn. mil, giving whois to the login prompt and after the host command, followed by the name of the company or organization being searched for.
82. How can an individual’s e-mail address be found? And here is not a specific way simple and absolutely reliable, just because the Internet is constantly expanding and its users grow at a geometrical rate, while many have accounts through corporate or academic accounts. For a description of the methods available, you can be informed by the FAQ by sending an email to email@example.com and writing the send usenet / news in the text of the message. answers / find-addresses.
83. Can someone misrepresent the sender’s details in e-mail? Yes, it is possible to send an email with fake data to the sender, which requires a good knowledge of Unix, but it usually does not go unnoticed by an experienced eye.
84. Can anyone send mail to Santa? Of course, if he first sent a mail to Santa @ north. field. org.
85. Is pornographic material trafficted on the Internet? On the Internet one can find anything in a big city just as long as he knows where to look. As in real life, so on the Internet any misuse or abuse is an isolated phenomenon rather than the rule.
86. Is it safe for a child to run on the Internet without supervision? It is as safe as sitting in front of a television with the remote control in hand.
87. Is buying and selling possible on the Internet? Of course, especially with the use of the World Wide Web.
88. It has been heard that machines sold by Coca-Cola are connected to the Internet. Is that true? About. At some US universities, students have connected machines selling soft drinks using special programs with the network, so giving a command can see how many boxes Coca-Cola contain. This can be achieved by any user, but is rather useless.
89. It has been heard that someone has connected a toaster on the Internet. Is that true? Indeed, it was made in 1990 at a conference and in a betting. It could open or close the power with a network command.
90. How is it possible to learn more about the Internet? In general, the best way to learn about the Internet is of course the Internet itself. This takes time, which is often not available. For these cases, books or seminars can be helpful in giving a clear picture of the network and getting started with it. Finally, even in the Internet itself there is plenty of information about its use.
The questioning was handled by Professor of the University of Patras P. Spyrakis on 28/12/1997