The Evolution of Money
State and property in the hands of companies.
The way in which the Fathers of the Economy taught the economic history is one of the many evil of the fate in which we are trapped. Today, when private property follows the fate of “public” we talked about New Feudalism. Companies – Feudarhas will be owners of houses, public spaces and state-owned enterprises. Managers of all the basic goods that modern man needs to live, such as water, transportation and power.
Nestle’s president strongly believes that all people should have a right to water. For natural and mineral wealth, no reason for where to go. But is this something “new” or comes from the old?
“Born Capitalism,” the Fathers exclaimed, and we think we have capitalism, almost since the industrial revolution of the 18th century. It is the moment when Adam Smith discovered the “invisible hand of the markets” in the place of the invisible God. And then we live with him. It is the hand that orchestrates our lives. Puts the notes, rules and laws in a Class. It gives the rhythm to which we owe indefinable compliance and obedience.
Consequently, compliance includes the delivery of my home to the tax office or to the company that will buy it, following a lawful seizure process.
Because I owe it, without getting a loan.
Because I’m taxing, without having any income.
The surrender of the state and its “services” to individuals and the exploitation of a geographic area by feudal companies is not a state of the modern phenomenon called Capitalism. Chapters and Companies have always existed, and laws regulating the relations between the State and the Company have been in force since ancient times. Their relationship with political power has always been a relationship between a government and economically powerful people. Who, at one time, had the upper hand was and is a matter of the State.
The development of an economic system was more a matter of decision-making and less of a development and development of productive forces (Marx) or market laws (economic liberalism).
The Maritime Code of Rhodes (479-475 BC)
Then incorporated into Roman law and the laws of the Byzantine Empire is the basis of the Napoleonic Commercial Code and all subsequent laws of maritime and non-commerce, to date. The Roman emperor Antonios Pios had ordered that any difficult naval issue should be solved according to the old Rhodian law, and it is said to have said, “I am the ruler of the world, the rhodium law, the master of the sea.”
Law, the decision of some people to set rules in their dealings, determined trade much more and much more before the era of the industrial revolution, the growth of productive forces and the “freedom of the markets.” Delivery of a state’s duties to private companies is not a current phenomenon. It is a phenomenon encountered, for the first time in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance period.
Today, we know that the basic principle of economic (new) liberalism is the separation of State and Market and the maximum possible weakening of the State in favor of the Market. None of the Fathers (left or right) has told us that what the market is today is a creation of state power or the relationship of some with state power.
The Market-Free Myth is trying to survive today, when everyone sees the state deciding who to “save” and who will “crash” outside and beyond any “free market” and “independent state” logic. Bankrupt banks are being saved, with money loaded as debt to the citizen and exterminating citizens because they owe money to their “saved” money.
We will shorten the contact with history, saying only that the term “bank” comes from the “bank” in the ancient Greek or the “bench” [hence the Latin terms banca, banque, bank] the ancient “bankers” to offer their brokerage services to their clients. Such simple banks already existed in ancient Athens, offering mainly currency exchange services, as well as credits for financing the then “international trade”.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, banking experience was lost along with the bankers. The next forms of banking appear in the Middle Ages where silver-finishers, goldsmiths and traders received deposits for which they issued certificates – certificates.
The first bank of the late Middle Ages is related to the Crusades.
“The Poor Messengers of Christ and the Temple of Solomon” were the most known to us as “Nazi Knights” who re-established after the Roman era the first integrated Western European banking, lending, discount and remittance system. (1129-1312). The Order dissolves from the Venice Synod and the financial work goes to the Venetians and other Northeast and Jewish goldsmiths under the Holy See.
The fact that tectonics, masonry and mystical galleries, such as Golden Dawn or the “Thoulis Company,” have the same matrix as modern banking and are also related situations with ideologies adjacent to bankers, this is another story .
The Bank and the State – Money and Debt Authority
In 1407 Genoa’s Republican repossessive debt was partially refinanced with debt securities and was entirely redeemed by the St. George Bank, a joint-stock company set up by the lenders of Repubblica through the proportionate redeeming of their claims. Perhaps, it is the first Central Bank of the planet, because its anonymous shares circulated in the square (square) alongside the republican securities.
In Northern Italy, the first issue of state bonds, bonds for state funding, appears. For a long time in the 14th-15th century, the medieval cities – Tuscan states – Florence, Pisa and Siena – were in war with each other or with other Italian cities. Each city was contractually recruited by military personnel who collected a mercenary army to annex and loot neighboring lands.
Republika Republika of Florence became the winner of these wars because it paid more, having the possibility of financing the war, by borrowing from citizens rather than taxing the citizens a more desirable method in the Monarchies and the Dukats. Florence’s debt of 50,000 yuan in the early 14th century, rose to 5,000,000 in 1427. Debt set the winners of the war and created the Florentine Renaissance, whose works we admire until today. The same people who, as “Republic” (republic), were issuing the bonds were the same people who lent it.
Together with the victories and the Renaissance, thanks to the borrowed money, the end of the “Democracy”
Repubblica, through this lending, went into the influence of the bankers, who had the name:
Patriarch of the family was Kozim Meikos the Elder (1389-1464), the richest man in the city, who managed to exile his opponents. From 1469 to 1492, the head of the family was Lavrentius the Magnificent (1449-1492), a banker, politician, poet and poet of many artists and scientists. In 1494, the Medici were expelled from Florence after a rebellion triggered by their corruption and the fiery sermons of Savonarola.
In 1512, however, they returned to the city, while Giovanni di Lorenzo de Mentici became a pope named Leon I in 1513, followed by Clement Z. Two became queens of France (Catherine and Mary of Medici). Three became dukes of Florence, Neumur and Tuscany. We would not have known Galileo, Botticelli, Michael Angelos and Machiavelli, if there were no Medici.
The existence of abundant money was what gave birth to what we are today saying “Renaissance”
The discovery of the easy metal coin in Lydia, in the place of ceramic materials or heavy metal, was the one that gave birth to what we say and was “ancient Greece” and that it created this great. The face of Middens makes the appearance of the terrible policy – and not only – power that bankers can acquire as owners and managers of money.
Pope Pius II, for Mazzotti: “Politics are settled in his house. The person he chooses has power. He is the one who decides on peace and war and controls the laws. Only by name is not a king. ”
Credit Money and its ‘followers’
This is the time when money is unprecedented, without a response, a “common secret” of the first bankers, which funded what is called Renaissance in Northern Italy. Mediators and the Italian banking system became the example of banking development across Northern Europe. The models of the councils of the aristocracy of money that ruled the Republicans of Northern Italy were the inspiration from which the later and present parliaments of the north. We, in Greece, are badly translating the Republicans as “Democracy” and the passers-by (from the Italian parlor, the place of debates) as “parliaments”.
The parliaments forced to establish the Monarchs of the North are the result of increasing the power of the Aristocracy of the owners of money against the aristocracy of landowners. They were the places for settling their differences. And their differences were resolved by allies in factions, whom we call parties today. This is what we say, “democracy”.
Debt – the credit money we boil today is a 13th – 14th century invention in Northern Italy. It is the invention of the Renaissance era, which would not have existed with this name if it was not financed by emerging financial-banking. It is the period of “silent acceptance” of paper money, a contract without a precious metal. We had to wait until 1694 to legitimize the money without a hit with the founding of the Bank of England.
Adam Smith: “The prudent operation of the banking system by using paper as a substitute for a large amount of gold and silver opens a way to the sky” !!!
Who is this road? The fantasies of Father of Economic Science are not confirmed by reality. Many, thanks to the paper, are walking in painful directions. Credit money is the tax-deductible capacity of the state. It has the effect of our ability to generate income through work or entrepreneurship. It’s for our own work.
Yet, today, violating all the laws of economy, politics and morality, the owners of credit money demand money from those who do not have income or work. This is not the same as any human history. It has no historical precedent.
Assignment of Power to Private Companies.
The republic of Genoa, failing to serve its debt at the Casa delle Compere di San Giorgio, has given the Bank certain taxes. This resembles the current process of scrapping taxpayers and the charging of individuals to collect taxes for the purpose of servicing the debt.
Playing with the temporary reduction of VAT on focus and emphasis on tax checks for its collection, which does not see the real fact of lack of turnover, will be the justification for delivering taxing to individuals. We already hear them talking about tax evaders and the failed state tax mechanism.
In Genoa in the 15th century, despite the assignment of the collection to individuals-lenders-bankers, the tax evasion failed. In 1453, Republican decided to give the Bank the full administration of certain possessions (Corsica, Cazaria and others). Since 1453 this bank has controlled all acquisitions in the Black Sea, while Genoese merchants, as well as merchants who acquired the rights of a citizen of Genoa, placed their capital on it.
The Bank abandoned private lending transactions etc and was involved in administrative matters and the collection of taxes. The Bank continued to run Corsica even in the period 1464-1482, when the acquisition came to the Duchy of Milan! Governments are changing, the Bank is staying. The Bank returned Corsica to the republic of Genoa in 1563 and was dissolved in 1805 after the conquest of Northern Italy by Napoleon.
Genoa, however, also founded the “Maons”, joint-stock companies to which it commanded its holdings. The most famous case is that of Chios, which was conquered in 1346, with a military enterprise of shipowners and merchants with a fee! Because Republican Genoa was unable to pay the shipowners who put the ships and merchants who funded the campaign, it gave the administration of the island to the company (maona) recommended by the 29 lenders.
This company, known as the company of Justiniani, retained control and exploitation of Chios until 1566, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. This company retained the administration of the island after the recovery of Chios from the Byzantine Empire in 1363. Governments are changing, the company remains. The only difference was that the governor was appointed by the Byzantine emperor instead of Genoa! The presence of Genoese merchants and merchants in the Byzantine Empire begins, with trade agreements and privileges, in 1155.
If they look like what’s happening today, do not crash. It is random. Most likely, the currents have not read history. The Governor, nowadays, is called Government and is not appointed by the Troika [but the Institutions] of the creditors, but is “elected”. Who controls the election is also another story he has to do with the basic principles of the Republic that are: Isagoria, Equality and Equality. The arrangement of the first basic principle has been entrusted to the media, and the other two have been taken over by the “Government”.
If, again, all this is not “Capitalism” [Capitalism], then what is it? The financial revolution was preceded by industrial, commercial capital preceded and funded, together with the bankers, the growth of industry and the corporate formation of capital is an old story. What has remained unchanged is the retention of power in the hands of a few, economically powerful.
Does the history of Capitalism need to be rewritten, so that we know what awaits us? Whatever we call it, what we live today is more like what emerged in the 14th-15th century in northern Italy than what we knew as “capitalism.”
1. Money, with the help of the state and always oligarchic power, made the Capitalism. What we call “capitalism”.
2. The delivery of private and public property to equity companies and banks is old and recurrent. Old stories and situations are our present and future. The era of liberal or socialist illusion was over. We are the meat in their meat-maker, in fast-food rhythms, during the fast track of the divestiture of state property. Dating in fast food or “good rehearsal in furry”.
If we do not “attack” the owners of money, democracy, life and dignity, let us not wait.
Of all this, we only learned that Giustiniani fought at the side of Constantine Palaiologos and left, injured, shortly before the Fall. The reason why they fought never told us. We were left with the impression that we did it because he was a good Christian, not because the northern part of the Keratian had been assigned to Genovese merchants.
Niall Ferguson: “The Evolution of Money” an economic history of the world, a book with useful information. Reporter of bankers and official biographer of the House of Rothschild. Bread, cash, money, cash, frank, parody, black, available, livelihood: as you say, money counts. For Christians, love for this is the source of all evil.
For the generals, it is the means of conducting the war – for the rebels, they are the bonds of labor. But what exactly is money, where did it come from and how did we end up in a world where more money is invisible? The first step to understanding the complexity of modern financial institutions is to find out their origins – which is what this unique introduction to economic and economic history offers.
Recognizing the proliferation of money as a driving force in modern history, the famous economist Natal Ferguson unfolds a series of fascinating scenarios where Medici, Rothschild, Bank of England, the Paris Stock Exchange, insurance companies and Wall Street have contributed with so that the historical significance of the money to take off into the stratosphere – where it is not just a tangible piece of paper but a universal abstraction called credit. Although written before the current financial crisis, the book proves to be extremely insightful, identifying in the symbiotic relationship between China and America “Chimerica”, where the first and the second spends one, the causes of the modern crisis.
The most important lesson in financial history is that sooner or later every bubble bursts, the “bears” – the pessimistic vendors – become more of the “bulls” – the optimistic buyers – and greed turns to fear. Whether or not he is struggling to take a walk or strives to become a master of the universe, the need to understand the course of money and its operation in the modern world has never been so compelling as it is today.